Colo-rectal Disorders (Colorectal Cancer Treatment)
Colon is a hollow tube that begins at the end of the small intestine ends at the anal canal. It is about 150 cm long and consists of cecum, appendix, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum and anal canal. Its main function is to make and store stools. The colon and the rectum are also prone to many diseases that range from inflammatory to cancer. However, the colon is amenable to examination and if diagnosed early, most of these problems have a good prognosis and good treatment outcomes.
If you are looking for colon cancer treatment in Mumbai, then you have come to the best place. On this page, we have provided all the information you need. You will find key information on different colorectal disorders, their symptoms and treatment options. We can also help you locate the best colorectal surgeon in Mumbai if you have recently been diagnosed with any of the below given colorectal disorders.
What are the different colo-rectal disorders:
Colo-rectal disorders as listed as under:
- Congenital: Hirchsprung’s disease
- Inflammatory bowel disease- Ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease
- Ischaemic colitis
- Infective diseases- colitis, amoebic colitis
- Diverticular disease- diverticulitis, diverticular perforation
- Acute conditions like volvulus, perforation etc
- Colonic polyps
- Rectal prolapse
- Cancer of the colon, rectum and anal canal
Signs and symptoms
Some of the signs and symptoms of colorectal diseases are mentioned as under:
- Pain in abdomen: This is a non-specific symptom and can be caused due to a myriad of causes, however, it still remains a significant symptom for diseases affecting the colon. In colo-rectal diseases, pain can occur due to intestinal obstruction (inflammatory or due to cancer), perforation of the large intestine or ischemia (lack of blood supply).
- Pelvic pain: This can originate from the lower part of the large intestine or the rectum. It can also be a symptom of gynaecological diseases like endometriosis. Pelvic inflammatory disease can also lead to pelvic pain.
- Anorectal pain: This can happen due to a fissure, thrombosed piles, peri-anal abscess, fistula. It can also occur due to skin conditions or even cancers in the peri-anal area.
- Blood in stools: This can be due to bleeding from the upper gastro-intestinal tract or from the lower GI tract. Most often, fresh blood is a sign of lower GI bleeding such as that from piles or fissures. Dark or blackish stools are a sign of bleeding from the upper GI tract. Bleeding can be due to ulcers, polyps, vascular malformations or even cancer.
- Tenesmus is another symptom of rectal disease.
- Constipation or obstruction: Constipation could be functional or due to a pathological condition of the GI tract such as obstruction, malignancy etc.
- Diarrhoea: This could be infective in nature like in the case of gastro-enteritis or it could be a sign of inflammatory bowel disease like ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease. It can also be due to malabsorption or short gut syndrome. Different kinds of colitis, irritable bowel syndrome and carcinoid syndrome can also lead to diarrhoea.
- Fecal incontinence
Investigations for diagnosis of colo-rectal diseases include:
- Stool culture
- Stool examination for occult blood
- Routine blood tests
- Tumour markers like serum CEA
- Genetic testing to rule out familial colo-rectal syndromes like familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)
- Imaging includes: Plain X rays and contrast studies, CT scan, MRI, PET CT, angiography, endo-rectal and endo-anal ultrasound.
- Ano-rectal manometry
- Neuro-physiologic testing
- Rectal evaluation studies
Treatment varies as per the disease that is affecting the large intestine. A complete evaluation is performed to reach a diagnosis and treatment is instituted accordingly. In case surgical treatment is needed, most of the colo-rectal surgeries can now be performed by the laparoscopic technique. Laparoscopic colo-rectal surgeries include- Laparoscopic right hemicolectomy, laparoscopic left hemicolectomy, laparoscopic sigmoidectomy, laparoscopic anterior resection, laparoscopic abdomino-perineal resection and laparoscopic rectopexy. Acute problems like perforation or volvulus can also be treated laparoscopically. Laparoscopy is also being used more and more in the treatment of colo-rectal cancers nowadays. The advantages of laparoscopy are less pain and an early recovery leading to an early discharge from the hospital and early return to work. It also leads to less wound related complications. If you want to learn more about colon cancer treatment in Mumbai, let us know.
Cost of treatment of colo-rectal diseases in Mumbai
Cost of colo-rectal surgeries depends on the type of the disease that we are dealing with and also on the specific treatment that may be needed. It also varies from hospital to hospital. We are associated with multiple hospitals and believe that quality treatment must be accessible to all. We will help you book an appointment with the best colorectal surgeon in Mumbai. Post your consultation we will guide you about the best possible option for your surgery.
Colo-rectal surgeries are usually covered by health insurance.